The first Speed Awareness Courses started to emerge as local courses in various parts of the country in early 2006. They were very limited and diverse, with little research behind them. The current National Speed Awareness Course was a module taken from the National Driver Improvement Course and developed based upon the existing practice that took place at that time. It was developed following the DfT report 66 of 2006 "Effective Interventions for Speeding Motorists" by the NDORS Strategic Course Development Group.
The primary data source of the driver's information is in local police force systems and / or PentiP the national system. Details of offenders who accept and complete the course are passed to NDORS through a system known as DORS. This system is a secure nationally accredited protocol and data is automatically, or manually entered by vetted police staff in a police environment. DORS is fully compliant with the standards and requirements for the handling of sensitive personal data.
The DORS database will keep an individual’s data for six years, after which it will be sanitised. If an individual objects to the data being kept on the database they have no choice other than to refuse a course. The data is kept completely secure and has been subject to the highest level of security checks.
Six years was determined to be the optimum time for data to be held on a database as it will assist us in seeking long-term effectiveness of course attendance. The law that covers this process is the Data Protection Act 1998, and the six-year issue is made very clear in the fair processing notice that is contained within the offer letter sent to prospective course attendees. Basically a person cannot retrospectively requested that the details are taken off the database having agreed to allow them to be put on for the seven years in the first place, as this is a prerequisite of course acceptance.
All data is controlled by a data processing agreement and our data registration with the Information Commissioner covers all these activities.
NDORS courses operate in most forces in England, Wales and Northern Ireland under a corporate collaborative arrangement agreed by the Association of Chief Police Officers in those respective areas.
The whole collaborative arrangement has not yet been adopted in Scotland and therefore only NDAC and RIDE are available in Scotland. However this does not preclude anyone detected in England, Wales or Northern Ireland, from choosing to attend the course at a venue at any one of the centres operated in the rest of the UK..
The Association of Chief Police Officers (Scotland) (ACPOS) and the Procurator Fiscal service have been closely monitoring developments in England and Wales and Northern Ireland and have been considering the position in Scotland for some time. Until such time as the authorities in Scotland decide to adopt the whole NDORS scheme, or another comparative scheme, the situation will remain unchanged and we will continue to invite those detected from Scotland to take the course at a venue in England, Wales or Northern Ireland. The nearest venues to Scottish address are in Cumbria and Northumbria
The National Driver Offender Retraining Scheme originated from a recommendation made by Dr Peter North (Sir Peter North) in his Road Traffic Law Review of 1988. This report commissioned by the Department of Transport, made many recommendations that are now part and parcel of normal enforcement. The first course was designed by Devon and Cornwall Constabulary together with Devon County Council and was known as the Driver Rectification Course. This course was taken up incrementally by forces across the whole of the UK and its evolution paved the way for today's NDORS.
The general philosophy behind NDORS, is that motorists may be diverted from the prosecution system where their driving amounts to a lapse of concentration or an error of judgement. The police decide, generally applying the public interest test, whether or not to divert the offender to a course. The offender can choose a course venue anywhere that offers the national course despite the location of the offending, this stops them having to return to the force area where it originated. They must pay for the cost of the course and the time to attend, self-funded rather than paid for by the state. On completion of the course, the original offence lapses and there is no further action taken in relation to it except they are excluded from attending a similar course for three years (capturing the persistent offender and ensuring they are prosecuted if they don’t amend their behaviour) and their name is placed on the national DORS database (managed centrally by the scheme). If the offender defaults on the offer the case reverts to normal process.
In December 2012 this scheme won the Prince Michael International Road Safety premier award, recognising the value of enforcement being met by a course of education rather than prosecution/penalty.
The national scheme means that those forces collaborating in it follow the same ACPO (Association of Chief Police Officers) guidelines. The same course is provided anywhere in England, Wales or Northern Ireland. This means that a person who commits an offence in one part of the country may take a course at a venue of their choice provided that venue has been approved to deliver the national course. Once an offender has completed a national course their details are placed on a national database so they are ineligible from accessing another national course within three years. The national courses are constructed by a Strategic Course Development Group consisting of leading academics and road safety officers. These national courses are subject to rigorous academic scrutiny prior to being launched, and undergo monitoring and evaluation to ensure they are fit for purpose. The whole of the national regime is governed by a governance board.
If a person attends a National Speed Awareness Course they cannot attend another National Speed Awareness Course within three years from the date of offence but if they are unfortunate enough to be involved in a collision within three years of committing the speeding offence they will still be eligible to attend the National Driver Alertness Course, (NDAC) provided they meet the eligibility test for the NDAC.
The three year rule starts from the date of offence. So for example if you committed a speeding offence on the 18th April, 2014, you would not be eligible for another National Speed Awareness Course until 19th April, 2017.
The Course Provider may offer you an arrangement to manage the payments in such a way that they are made before the course commences i.e. stage payments. If the course provider who you are looking to book with does not offer stage payments, you can look for one who will. Please note: If you do not pay for the course, you may risk being put back into the criminal justice system and face prosecution for the original offence.
No, if provided outside of NDORS. Only NDORS courses have to be approved as conforming to the national specifications. There are examples of other courses being provided by police forces that are not part of the national arrangement and operate on a local basis.
In all probability the answer is yes because as new offences are introduced and different types of driving environments emerge e.g. 20 mph zones and limits, we have to consider extending the spirit of NDORS to address the offending, rather than deal with the offence through punitive sanction.
NDORS has a strict policy of how refunds should operate. This is explained in detail under the section entitled Courses and also the policy is in the library should you wish to view it.
In all probability the current level of course completions are generally a reflection of future trends. This is a difficult question because there are so many factors that can influence this figure. However, there is great support for these courses.
We don't hold any information regarding how many courses have taken place. We only count the number of people who have attended a course and these records did not start until 2010.
The scheme financial model is designed to provide police with central cost recovery only. The enforcement costs of collecting evidence, serving forms and fixed penalties with the offer of a course, organising courses, monitoring attendance and finalising the evidence on successful attendance costs an average £35. Each offender attending a course returns £35 to the force initiating their offer.
NDORS, the scheme is not a private company. However, until April 2016 there was a private company NDORS Ltd that provided business support and administered the financial arrangements regarding the collection and distribution of the central cost recovery charge. NDORS Ltd was a not-for-profit company. From April 2016, NDORS, the scheme will be governed by UKROEd Ltd, a private not-for-profit company, which is operating the scheme on behalf of the UK Police Forces.
Records from 2010 are published on our trends and stats page of this website. Please click here to view them. No information prior to this date is held.
NDORS is funded on a local level by the offender paying for the cost of the course, set by the local police force in conjunction with their preferred course supplier. The course supplier keeps an amount to cover their costs. The police cost recovery is met by a charge being imposed on each and every offender completing the course (currently £35 for Speed Awareness, Driving 4 Change and What’s Driving Us? and £20 for National Driver Alertness and RIDE). This charge is collected by UKROEd . All but £5 from this fee is returned to the originating force by UKROEd which is to fund the cost recovery of providing central business support to NDORS, the scheme. Where applicable, VAT is charged at the standard rate, and this money goes to the Treasury.
The course fee is made up of either two or three component parts.
The course cost.
This is cost of providing the course to the offender by the course provider.
The central charge.
The money collected by from the course provider to cover the police administration costs and central support to the NDORS scheme.
Where applicable, VAT may be added to the overall cost. This depends on the VAT status of the course provider
The short answer is No. The courts have no authority or power in law to order or offer an NDORS course as they are completely within the preserve of the Police. When a person has been convicted the court can only impose penalties such as fines, disqualification, penalty points, imprisonment etc.
The NDORS database, known as the Driver Offender Retraining System (DORS) is an accredited secure database owned and operated by UKROEd Ltd, which is a company owned by the UK police services for the purposes of delivering the National Driver Offender Retraining Scheme.
NDORS nor UKROEd Ltd gives no money to Police Forces, Local Councils or Third Party organisations for the courses to be run.
The money is divided up into:
This is a matter for local police forces to answer because the information is not held centrally.
UKROEd Ltd receives £5 per person completing a course. Course costs vary across the country as explained in pages throughout this website. When a person receives a course offer from the police in their accompanying correspondence there will be an information sheet explaining where the courses are held, who supplies them, contact details of the supplier and the price of the course. Also, when a person logs onto the DORS website and searches for a course venue, the course cost will be displayed. If you want to see where course availability is, please visit the course page of this website and click on the links where there is a map facility and people can undertake a postcode search.
This is covered in an offenders offer letter and associated correspondence. The requirement is a photo-card licence with a photograph that is in date. If you do not have a photo-card licence, the old style paper licence may be produced with another form of photographic identification.
There isn't a definitive list. Below are examples of what may be used
No individual police force has a power to interfere with or regulate the insurance industry, and all insurance providers and their underwriters are more or less free to charge premiums based on their own assessment of risk.
A frequently asked question from people being offered and attending courses is whether or not an NDORS course offer and attendance should be notified to their insurers. Legal advice is that attendance on an NDORS course is not a conviction, nor should it be treated as a conviction, unlike a fixed penalty.
NDORS Data is NOT shared with insurance companies and they have no access to it.
There appears to be an inconsistent approach by the industry to NDORS, with a minority of insurers adjusting premiums once notified and others displaying no interest whatsoever.
The Consumer Insurance (Disclosure and Representations) Act 2012, came into force on 6 April 2013. This Act modifies the old common law rule that insurance policies are contracts “of the utmost good faith”, which obliged people to disclose information which might be relevant, even if it had not been requested. Under the Act, members of the public taking out insurance for mainly non business purposes, but which includes a private car policy with Class 1 business use, no longer need to try to guess what an insurer might want to know. Instead they only have to supply what is requested, either when taking out a Policy or when something changes during the life of a policy. So, unless the question regarding NDORS course attendance and completion is specifically asked at the time of making the proposal, or at any other time during the lifetime of the policy, there is no obligation whatsoever on a driver who has completed an NDORS course to disclose this to the insurers. However, as always, the detail is in the small print.
If you think you have been asked for inappropriate information by an insurance company in relation to a NDORS course offer or attendance, advice on how to deal with it has been published by the Association of British Insurance. More details can be found on their website:
Ordinarily No. This is because NDORS courses are designed by the NDORS behavioural scientists / psyschologists around the optimum number of people to achieve the objectives, giving the participants an opportunity to interact with each other. This cannot be achieved on a one-to-one basis and therefore would not benefit the participant and achieve the course objectives.
There are however circumstances that are exceptionally rare that due to medical reasons a course provider may offer alternative arrangements conducive to the bespoke needs of the offender.
The scheme is operated on behalf of each and every police force wishing to divert offenders to NDORS courses. In 2007/8, a full business case was put before ACPO (Association of Chief Police Officers) Cabinet and Council to seek full endorsement by ACPO of the regime and provide the consistency of use over the police forces in England, Wales & NI. ACPO agreed that it could support forces by offering a suite of national course and at the same time recover the police costs (cost recovery only) of administering the process from detection to course completion from the offender in a similar vein to other restorative justice initiatives. This was further endorsed by ACPO Chief Constables Cabinet and Council in January 2011. Education as a way of dealing with suitable offenders features in the ACPO 2011-2015 Policing the Roads Strategy, Satisfying Safety – Reducing Risk and is provided by this scheme. It seeks to fundamentally change the philosophy in how the discipline is delivered by focusing on harm reduction in the application of its strategic goals: safer roads, habitual compliance, public confidence/satisfaction and an educational alternative to prosecution. The public want to be offered education and not prosecuted and this is the method the police use to achieve this. In April 2015 ACPO became NPCC (National Police Chiefs Council).
Please note Providers and Police Forces can only deal with the individual who is supposed to be attending the course. If a family member rings up on individual’s behalf they will not be able to deal with them unless they have been given specific instruction in writing to act on behalf of the individual.
‘We’ can only accept evidence of illness from a registered medical practitioner, whether it is a doctor or a registered nurse who is qualified to say the individual was so disabled by their condition that they could not attend that course at that particular time. If this is the case then you could reschedule attendance on a course.
This is normally explained in greater detail in the terms and conditions section of the course providers correspondence or on their website.
You should inquire with the police force that sent you a course offer in the first place. This is best done on the forces’ website under the section regarding Data Protection. Ordinarily that website will tell you how to make an application for your personal data that the force holds in relation to you, and this should include any references to your course attendance
We do not normally allow requests of this nature. This purely allows individuals who attend courses to remain anonymous. If there is a request by the National Strategic Development Group on behalf of NDORS to view a course whilst individuals are present, individuals will be notified prior to the course occurring.
Course providers must make reasonable arrangements to accommodate people attending NDORS courses who have a disability. Course providers normally invite offenders to contact them if they feel they have got a relevant requirement and the provider should endeavour to take reasonable steps to accommodate the need. It is a person’s responsibility who has chosen an NDORS course to declare any requirements to the course provider at the time of booking the course, so the provider has time to access the need and make any relevant preparations / arrangements. It is not appropriate to declare a requirement on the day of the course. Everyone is reminded that there is a legal obligation to notify the DVLA of any relevant medical conditions. Please click on the link to find out more about notifying the DVLA about medical conditions https://www.gov.uk/dvla-medical-enquiries
Please visit the page on this website under courses here
A person can change their mind at any time up until the point when they sign a registration certificate to attend the course i.e. on the day of the course.
That being the case, then the terms and conditions on refunds from the provider and the police will come into effect.
The status of the person in the IT system should be returned to "offer pending" to give them an opportunity to find and source another course before the critical date if they so desire.
Once a critical date has elapsed, then they go into the process route.
‘We’ regret that 'we' cannot accommodate referrals into the programme have not been sent by the police. This is due to the course offer being a pre-court disposal option. There are many other courses on offer in the public domain that can be accessed without being caught for an offence.
Please view the pages under courses here
All of the NDORS courses are developed by a Strategic Course Development Group made up of leading academics in the field of driver offending behaviour and post prosecution education as recognised by the Department for Transport. These academics are supported by leading practitioners in driver education. The group’s responsibilities are to engineer suitable interventions to meet the needs of the service, education to offenders to reduce further infringement and to provide advice on robust quality evaluation to make sure that any course NDORS offers is fit for purpose and effective.
Currently there is no facility to "register" as course providers normally are appointed through local force procurement processes. Within that process providers must bid against a series of commercial and technical qualifications demonstrating they are fit to operate one of one or more of our courses.
You could register with the emergency services procurement website, which is www.bluelight.gov.uk .Most police forces use this facility to advertise upcoming contracts as well as placing them in other media. Please see our page on ‘How to become a course provider.’
Yes: NDORS has robust guidance on the subject, which has been compiled by specialist equality lawyers. All course providers must have these facilities. However it is important to acknowledge that the nursing mother will be one of up to 24 people participating in the class. Therefore any arrangements must also take into consideration how to best accommodate a request for breastfeeding in the interests of everyone on the course. A private facility will be provided by request for breast feeding and in addition a support person (e.g. colleague or friend) may attend to look after the baby whilst the mother is in the classroom. The support person will not be allowed into the training room. This should be arranged on a one-to-one basis prior to the course, so that arrangements can be put in place by the provider. We recognise that each case may be different. The provider should ask beforehand whether or not the participant has any special needs and they will do everything to ensure a mother will have the opportunity to breastfeed their baby. It is also important to point out that all the course content has to be covered by every offender to complete the course. If a nursing mother absents herself from any part of the course for the purposes of breastfeeding without permission it could constitute a failure to complete the course and may lead to the offence being placed back into the criminal justice process.
NDORS was never put on the statutory footing that Dr North originally envisaged in the Road Traffic Law Review of 1988. From the outset, it was decreed by a legal opinion, that the power to divert someone from prosecution into an NDORS course rested with the common law power of discretion that a Police Officer can use. This legal opinion was reinforced in 2010 when services of a senior QC were commissioned to review the legal basis of the NDORS regime as it stood in 2010. The QC produced a comprehensive report that went far beyond legitimising the common law power, by making commentary on the wider public interest being applied to NDORS, and generally concluding that diversion to these courses should be an option of first choice for a police officer or decision maker were appropriate.
Whilst the full legal opinion is not disclosable in the public domain, due to it being subject of Legal Professional Privilege, NDORS have produced a summarised version of the legal opinion in the interests of accountability and transparency. This summarised version can be found by clicking FAQs
Attempts have been made to obtain the full legal opinion by applications under the Freedom of Information Act 2000, and the decision not to disclose the information was challenged at a First Tier Tribunal on 14 October 2013. The tribunal found in favour of the Information Commissioner who originally supported the Home Office decision not disclose the document.The tribunal's decision's explanation can be found at this link:
No. Nobody has an automatic right to course after committing an offence. The only right a person has is the right to a fair trial if they decide to take the case before a magistrates court and challenge the accusation. NDORS is a concession offered at the discretion of the Chief Officer of the force where the offence took place. All Police Forces have agreed to participate in the national collaborative arrangement, that if they want to divert offenders onto the nationally provided courses they will need to use NDORS. Some forces do have an alternative to NDORS and they are subject to the governance arrangements of the force concerned. Offenders diverted onto these courses will normally have to travel back to the area where the offence took place to take the course.
The decision to prosecute or not rests entirely with the police force dealing with the offence. However and generally speaking, the person supervising a learner driver doesn’t automatically commit any offences the driver commits. There has to be evidence of culpability by aiding abetting, counselling or procuring, or inciting the commission of the offence. Even if the vehicle has dual controls and the instructor could have applied the brake, he/she doesn’t commit the offence just by failing to do so. Since pupils are meant to have read the Highway Code and recognise road signs, they can hardly claim they didn’t know they were speeding and blame the instructor.
If the instructor has taken over and is controlling the steering wheel from the passenger seat and has dual control for the pedals, then the the instructor and not the pupil would be “driving” at that point in time and could be prosecuted.
To book a course you need to go to the website https://offer.ndors.org.uk
NDORS courses are available in numerous locations at varying times and dates. The duration of the course is a specific period of time i.e. 4 hours etc. and has to follow a set format so therefore you will be expected to attend for the full duration of the course in one go. If you have a special requirement conducive to your schedule you must shop around through the various course providers and secure one that meets your needs. Unless you have exceptional special reasons, the time dates and places of the courses are as published by the course providers and the failure to attend for the whole course will constitute a "non-attendance" which will invariably lead to you being placed into the criminal justice process, and receiving a fixed penalty ticket or having to appear before a court.
You must contact the police force that made you the offer and sent you the original paperwork. You will need your driving licence number because that will assist them to trace your file and assist you to contact your chosen course provider if you have booked a course. You must not delay in contacting the police force, because course offers are time-limited, and if you fail to complete the course by a date which will be specified by the police force, they will place you into the criminal justice process and you will very likely receive a fine and have points on your licence. All police forces have websites, if you don't have their contact details you could search for their details on the internet.
You must contact the course provider you have booked with as soon as possible.
They should be able to confirm that you have successfully booked a course and give you the relevant details i.e. time date place etc. You should carefully keep any correspondence from the course provider until at least you have completed the course. If you cannot remember the course provider details, go back to the police force that sent you the original offer and they should be able to assist.
There should be no more than two students to every one instructor for any on road element of an NDORS course. However, due to exceptional circumstances which should be made clear to you at the time, there may be 3 students in the vehicle but never under any circumstances should this be exceeded.
To be a course provider you must hold either a full or provisional licence to deliver the NDORS courses. If you are not a full licence holder, you have to go through a rigorous licensing assessment to demonstrate that you are a fit and proper organisation to hold an NDORS licence to deliver the service concession to a police force. To apply for a provisional licence, there is a £750 non-refundable assessment fee. Once you hold an NDORS licence, this will allow you to bid to become a course provider as and when police forces advertise for organisations to deliver the NDORS service concession within their force area. When these tenders come up for offer they are advertised on the emergency services procurement website https://www.bluelight.gov.uk
If you wish to complain about the alleged offence then you must direct your complaint to the police force who sent you the correspondence. The "contact us" facility on this website is not to be used for complaints in the first instance. If your complaint relates to any aspect of your course, you must make the complaint to the course provider or the police force responsible for the area which the course was provided. There is usually a process in place whereby a provider must inform its appointing police force about any complaints it receives regarding the delivery of NDORS. That police force may escalate the matter to NDORS if it feels appropriate.
It is really important that you do not ignore any correspondence which has been sent to you by the police force or the course provider relating to the return of any documents which the police force or the provider has asked you to complete either by paper or electronic means, because the delay could mean that if you have been offered a course, and you don't reply within the timescales set by the police or provider, your course offer could be withdrawn and you will probably receive a fixed penalty ticket.
Your correspondence from the police force of the course provider should contain details of how to contact them, in addition to any information they may have posted on their local websites.
Should you wish to say something positive or constructive regarding your experience on one of our courses, your first point of contact should usually be the course provider who delivered the course. Most course providers have a media manager in place, and they usually share any compliments with their appointing police force and with NDORS. Should you wish to use the "contact us" facility on this website for this reason, we will pass on your remarks to the appropriate course provider and/or police force.
The http://offer.ndors.org.uk website is secure and has a certified SSL certificate to ensure your data is kept secure. We regularly test our security processes and procedures with IT Health Checks. The security of the system is independently verified and accredited by the National Police Information Risk Management Team. We are aware that some internet browsers may not recognise some SSL certificates and our suppliers work with companies to address this issue as soon as we become aware of them.
NDORS has to strictly comply with the Data Protection Act 1998.
In deciding to offer a course, the police force will have checked through their local force data systems an offender's (also known as the data subject) details to establish if they have completed a similar course within the last 3 years of the offence.
If the data subject decides to accept the course, their driving licence number will be placed on the National Driver Offender Retraining Scheme database (known as DORS). This national database is an accredited secure database owned and operated by UK ROEd Ltd, which is a company owned by the UK police services for the purposes of delivering the National Driver Offender Retraining Scheme. The driving licence number will be shared with the offender's chosen course provider for the purposes of processing the offer.
Their chosen course provider will ask for other personal details when booking the course and this information will be added to the national database via their local systems for the purpose of administering the course correspondence.
If the data subject goes on to complete the course, their details relating to the course will remain on the DORS system for use by a Police Force if they are considering making an offer of a course in the future, and for road safety research purposes for 6 years from the date of the offence, after which any personal reference to the offender will be erased.
In addition, if they have been involved in a collision the police force dealing with the collision may release their details to *
*This information will NOT be obtained from the DORS as police forces will use other systems for the purposes of meeting a lawful request for disclosure. For more information on this matter you need to contact the force concerned.
Other exemptions for disclosure of the data subject's personal details under the Data Protection Act 1998 may apply.
NDORS Data is NOT shared with insurance companies and they have no access to it.
THE DATA SUBJECT'S PERSONAL DETAILS WILL NOT AT ANY TIME BE MADE AVAILABLE TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC.
NDORS Data is NOT shared with insurance companies and they have no access to it.
This is covered by subject access request and this allows you to request the information regarding your course attendance. Only you can apply for extract of data held on police systems. You therefore need to contact the Police Force who sent you the original documentation. You can normally do this via the police force website or contact them on the 101 number. You will need to provide proof of identity and there may be a small charge for this service.
There are numerous road user groups whom we could specifically refer to on the courses, however this would prove to be fairly impossible to cover the spectrum of all these groups during the time we have available on the courses.
The courses focus on relevant offending behaviours. If for example we had a driver or rider referred to one of our courses for careless or inconsiderate driving or riding in the presence of horses on the highway, then he/she would be set activities relating to horses, similarly if the reason they were referred to the NDORS course involved a cyclist, or a pedestrian, or a dog walker, we would set activities specific to the risk they have created. Furthermore, each and every person attending one of our courses should be reminded of their obligations under there various rules of the Highway Code, and the specific laws covering their actions.
The only exception to the above is the course for motorcyclists - RIDE. This course was designed because of the disproportionate risk they face in comparison to the rest of the motoring community.
There will be occasions where someone who has committed a second similar offence within the life of an existing uncompleted course offer. This will be picked up by the national database as it will have locked your record to the first offence date. The second offence will be make you ineligible for another offer as you cannot have two courses within 3 years for the same type of offence and a fixed penalty or summons will be issued for the second offence.
You must contact the police force who sent you the original correspondence, because you will have told them your driving licence number when you admitted to being the driver of the vehicle concerned. They should be able to help you. You may also wish to contact the DVLA https://www.gov.uk/contact-the-dvla
People attending NDORS courses should conduct themselves in a respectful manner to the course trainers and others attending the course. NDORS has a zero tolerance policy towards offensive and abusive behaviour. Course attendees are required to have a clean appearance and are individually responsible for their general presentation, appearance and personal hygiene, and they have a responsibility to consider how others may perceive their appearance. Course attendees should not wear clothing which is likely to cause embarrassment to themselves or others.
Maintaining a comfortable environment in which all course attendees can participate is important. However, sometimes poor hygiene from an individual can affect other course attendees, with whom the individual comes into contact. Course attendees should come to a course having attended to their personal hygiene, with clean clothes and hair and free from unpleasant odors. NDORS reserves the right to refuse access or expel anyone for wearing inappropriate dress or for poor personal hygiene. Normally where this is implemented the course attendee will be referred back to the police and the matter will proceed by way of the criminal justice system.